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Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants

Author(s): Zhou, Bin ; Bentham, James ; Di Cesare, Mariachiara ; Bixby, Honor ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Hajifathalian, Kaveh ; Taddei, Cristina ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Djalalinia, Shirin ; Khatibzadeh, Shahab ; Lugero, Charles ; Peykari, Niloofar ; Zhang, Wan Zhu ; Bennett, James ; Bilano, Ver ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Chen, Zhengming ; Hambleton, Ian R. ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young-Ho ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Liu, Jing ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Neuhauser, Hannelore K. ; Soric, Maroje ; Starc, Gregor ; Sundstrom, Johan ; Woodward, Mark ; Ezzati, Majid ; Abarca-Gomez, Leandra ; Abdeen, Ziad A. ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Afsana, Kaosar ; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A. ; Agyemang, Charles ; Ahmad, Noor Ani ; Ahmadvand, Alireza ; Ahrens, Wolfgang ; Ajlouni, Kamel ; Akhtaeva, Nazgul ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Ali, Mohamed M. ; Ali, Osman ; Alkerwi, Ala'a ; Aly, Eman ; Amarapurkar, Deepak N. ; Amouyel, Philippe ; Amuzu, Antoinette ; Andersen, Lars Bo ; Anderssen, Sigmund A. ; Angquist, Lars H. ; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan ; Ansong, Daniel ; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer ; Araujo, Joana ; Ariansen, Inger ; Aris, Tahir ; Arlappa, Nimmathota ; Arveiler, Dominique ; Aryal, Krishna K. ; Aspelund, Thor ; Assah, Felix K. ; Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F. ; Avdicova, Maria ; Azevedo, Ana ; Azizi, Fereidoun ; Babu, Bontha V. ; Bahijri, Suhad ; Balakrishna, Nagalla ; Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed ; Banach, Maciej ; Bandosz, Piotr ; Banegas, Jose R. ; Barbagallo, Carlo M. ; Barcelo, Alberto ; Barkat, Amina ; Barros, Aluisio J. D. ; Barros, Mauro V. ; Bata, Iqbal ; Batieha, Anwar M. ; Batyrbek, Assembekov ; Baur, Louise A. ; Beaglehole, Robert ; Ben Romdhane, Habiba ; Benet, Mikhail ; Benson, Lowell S. ; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio ; Bernotiene, Gailute ; Bettiol, Heloisa ; Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor ; Bharadwaj, Sumit ; Bhargava, Santosh K. ; Bi, Yufang ; Bikbov, Mukharram ; Bista, Bihungum ; Bjerregaard, Peter ; Bjertness, Espen ; Bjertness, Marius B. ; Bjorkelund, Cecilia ; Blokstra, Anneke ; Bo, Simona ; Bobak, Martin ; Boeing, Heiner ; Boggia, Jose G. ; Boissonnet, Carlos P. ; Bongard, Vanina ; Borchini, Rossana ; Bovet, Pascal ; Braeckman, Lutgart ; Brajkovich, Imperia ; Branca, Francesco ; Breckenkamp, Juergen ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brewster, Lizzy M. ; Bruno, Graziella ; Bueno-de-Mesquita ; Bugge, Anna ; Burns, Con ; Bursztyn, Michael ; Cabrera de Leon, Antonio ; Cacciottolo, Joseph ; Cai, Hui ; Cameron, Christine ; Can, Gunay ; Candido, Ana Paula C. ; Capuano, Vincenzo ; Cardoso, Viviane C. ; Carlsson, Axel C. ; Carvalho, Maria J. ; Casanueva, Felipe F. ; Casas, Juan-Pablo ; Caserta, Carmelo A. ; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha ; Chan, Angelique W. ; Chan, Queenie ; Chaturvedi, Himanshu K. ; Chaturvedi, Nishi ; Chen, Chien-Jen ; Chen, Fangfang ; Chen, Huashuai ; Chen, Shuohua ; Cheng, Ching-Yu ; Cherkaoui Dekkaki, Imane ; Chetrit, Angela ; Chiolero, Arnaud ; Chiou, Shu-Ti ; Chirita-Emandi, Adela ; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores ; Cho, Belong ; Cho, Yumi ; Christofaro, Diego G. [UNESP] ; Chudek, Jerzy ; Cifkova, Renata ; Cinteza, Eliza ; Claessens, Frank ; Clays, Els ; Concin, Hans ; Cooper, Cyrus ; Cooper, Rachel ; Coppinger, Tara C. ; Costanzo, Simona ; Cottel, Dominique ; Cowell, Chris ; Craig, Cora L. ; Crujeiras, Ana B. ; Cruz, Juan J. ; D'Arrigo, Graziella ; d'Orsi, Eleonora ; Dallongeville, Jean ; Damasceno, Albertino ; Dankner, Rachel ; Dantoft, Thomas M. ; Dauchet, Luc ; Davletov, Kairat ; De Backer, Guy ; De Bacquer, Dirk ; Gaetano, Giovanni de ; De Henauw, Stefaan ; Oliveira, Paula Duarte de ; De Smedt, Delphine ; Deepa, Mohan ; Dehghan, Abbas ; Delisle, Helene ; Deschamps, Valerie ; Dhana, Klodian ; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F. ; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares ; Diaz, Alejandro ; Dickerson, Ty T. ; Do, Ha T. P. ; Dobson, Annette J. ; Donfrancesco, Chiara ; Donoso, Silvana P. ; Doering, Angela ; Dorobantu, Maria ; Doua, Kouamelan ; Drygas, Wojciech ; Dulskiene, Virginija ; Dzakula, Aleksandar ; Dzerve, Vilnis ; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta ; Eggertsen, Robert ; Ekelund, Ulf ; El Ati, Jalila ; Elliott, Paul ; Elosua, Roberto ; Erasmus, Rajiv T. ; Erem, Cihangir ; Eriksen, Louise ; Eriksson, Johan G. ; Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge ; Evans, Alun ; Faeh, David ; Fall, Caroline H. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J. ; Ferguson, Trevor S. ; Fernandes, Romulo A. [UNESP] ; Fernandez-Berges, Daniel ; Ferrante, Daniel ; Ferrari, Marika ; Ferreccio, Catterina ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Finn, Joseph D. ; Fischer, Krista ; Foger, Bernhard ; Foo, Leng Huat ; Forslund, Ann-Sofie ; Forsner, Maria ; Fouad, Heba M. ; Francis, Damian K. ; Franco, Maria do Carmo ; Franco, Oscar H. ; Frontera, Guillermo ; Fuchs, Flavio D. ; Fuchs, Sandra C. ; Fujita, Yuki ; Furusawa, Takuro ; Gaciong, Zbigniew ; Galvano, Fabio ; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli ; Gareta, Dickman ; Garnett, Sarah P. ; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel ; Gasull, Magda ; Gates, Louise ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Ghasemian, Anoosheh ; Ghimire, Anup ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Gianfagna, Francesco ; Gill, Tiffany K. ; Giovannelli, Jonathan ; Goldsmith, Rebecca A. ; Goncalves, Helen ; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela ; Gonzalez-Rivas, Juan P. ; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano ; Gottrand, Frederic ; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel ; Grafnetter, Dusan ; Grajda, Aneta ; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G. ; Gregor, Ronald D. ; Grodzicki, Tomasz ; Grontved, Anders ; Grosso, Giuseppe ; Gruden, Gabriella ; Grujic, Vera ; Gu, Dongfeng ; Guan, Ong Peng ; Gudmundsson, Elias F. ; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Guerrero, Ramiro ; Guessous, Idris ; Guimaraes, Andre L. ; Gulliford, Martin C. ; Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna ; Gunter, Marc ; Gupta, Prakash C. ; Gupta, Rajeev ; Gureje, Oye ; Gurzkowska, Beata ; Gutierrez, Laura ; Gutzwiller, Felix ; Hadaegh, Farzad ; Halkjaer, Jytte ; Hardy, Rebecca ; Kumar, Rachakulla Hari ; Hata, Jun ; Hayes, Alison J. ; He, Jiang ; He, Yuna ; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth ; Henriques, Ana ; Hernandez Cadena, Leticia ; Herrala, Sauli ; Heshmat, Ramin ; Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani ; Ho, Sai Yin ; Ho, Suzanne C. ; Hobbs, Michael ; Hofman, Albert ; Dinc, Gonul Horasan ; Horimoto, Andrea R. V. R. ; Hormiga, Claudia M. ; Horta, Bernardo L. ; Houti, Leila ; Howitt, Christina ; Htay, Thein Thein ; Htet, Aung Soe ; Htike, Maung Maung Than ; Hu, Yonghua ; Maria Huerta, Jose ; Huisman, Martijn ; Husseini, Abdullatif S. ; Huybrechts, Inge ; Hwalla, Nahla ; Iacoviello, Licia ; Iannone, Anna G. ; Ibrahim, Mohsen M. ; Wong, Norazizah Ibrahim ; Ikeda, Nayu ; Ikram, M. Arfan ; Irazola, Vilma E. ; Islam, Muhammad ; Ismail, Aziz al-Safi ; Ivkovic, Vanja ; Iwasaki, Masanori ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Jaddou, Hashem ; Jafar, Tazeen ; Jamrozik, Konrad ; Janszky, Imre ; Jasienska, Grazyna ; Jelakovic, Ana ; Jelakovic, Bojan ; Jennings, Garry ; Jeong, Seung-lyeal ; Jiang, Chao Qiang ; Joffres, Michel ; Johansson, Mattias ; Jokelainen, Jari J. ; Jonas, Jost B. ; Jorgensen, Torben ; Joshi, Pradeep ; Jozwiak, Jacek ; Juolevi, Anne ; Jurak, Gregor ; Juresa, Vesna ; Kaaks, Rudolf ; Kafatos, Anthony ; Kajantie, Eero O. ; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra ; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi ; Karki, Khem B. ; Kasaeian, Amir ; Katz, Joanne ; Kauhanen, Jussi ; Kaur, Prabhdeep ; Kavousi, Maryam ; Kazakbaeva, Gyulli ; Keil, Ulrich ; Boker, Lital Keinan ; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka ; Kelishadi, Roya ; Kemper, Han C. G. ; Kengne, Andre P. ; Kerimkulova, Alina ; Kersting, Mathilde ; Key, Timothy ; Khader, Yousef Saleh ; Khalili, Davood ; Khateeb, Mohammad ; Khaw, Kay-Tee ; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula ; Kiechl, Stefan ; Killewo, Japhet ; Kim, Jeongseon ; Kim, Yeon-Yong ; Klumbiene, Jurate ; Knoflach, Michael ; Kolle, Elin ; Kolsteren, Patrick ; Korrovits, Paul ; Koskinen, Seppo ; Kouda, Katsuyasu ; Kowlessur, Sudhir ; Koziel, Slawomir ; Kriemler, Susi ; Kristensen, Peter Lund ; Krokstad, Steinar ; Kromhout, Daan ; Kruger, Herculina S. ; Kubinova, Ruzena ; Kuciene, Renata ; Kuh, Diana ; Kujala, Urho M. ; Kulaga, Zbigniew ; Kumar, R. Krishna ; Kurjata, Pawel ; Kusuma, Yadlapalli S. ; Kuulasmaa, Kari ; Kyobutungi, Catherine ; Laatikainen, Tiina ; Lachat, Carl ; Lam, Tai Hing ; Landrove, Orlando ; Lanska, Vera ; Lappas, Georg ; Larijani, Bagher ; Laugsand, Lars E. ; Khanh Le Nguyen Bao ; Le, Tuyen D. ; Leclercq, Catherine ; Lee, Jeannette ; Lee, Jeonghee ; Lehtimaki, Terho ; Leon-Munoz, Luz M. ; Levitt, Naomi S. ; Li, Yanping ; Lilly, Christa L. ; Lim, Wei-Yen ; Fernanda Lima-Costa, M. ; Lin, Hsien-Ho ; Lin, Xu ; Lind, Lars ; Linneberg, Allan ; Lissner, Lauren ; Litwin, Mieczyslaw ; Lorbeer, Roberto ; Lotufo, Paulo A. ; Eugenio Lozano, Jose ; Luksiene, Dalia ; Lundqvist, Annamari ; Lunet, Nuno ; Lytsy, Per ; Ma, Jun ; Machado-Coelho, George L. L. ; Machi, Suka ; Maggi, Stefania ; Magliano, Dianna J. ; Magriplis, Emmanuella ; Majer, Marjeta ; Makdisse, Marcia ; Malhotra, Rahul ; Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna ; Malyutina, Sofia ; Manios, Yannis ; Mann, Jim I. ; Manzato, Enzo ; Margozzini, Paula ; Marques-Vidal, Pedro ; Marques, Larissa Pruner ; Marrugat, Jaume ; Martorell, Reynaldo ; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B. ; Matijasevich, Alicia ; Matsha, Tandi E. ; Mbanya, Jean Claude N. ; Posso, Anselmo J. Mc Donald ; McFarlane, Shelly R. ; McGarvey, Stephen T. ; McLachlan, Stela ; McLean, Rachael M. ; McLean, Scott B. ; McNulty, Breige A. ; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia ; Medzioniene, Jurate ; Meirhaeghe, Aline ; Meisinger, Christa ; Menezes, Ana Maria B. ; Menon, Geetha R. ; Meshram, Indrapal I. ; Metspalu, Andres ; Meyer, Haakon E. ; Mi, Jie ; Mikkel, Kairit ; Miller, Jody C. ; Minderico, Claudia S. ; Francisco, Juan ; Jaime Miranda, J. ; Mirrakhimov, Erkin ; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta ; Modesti, Pietro A. ; Mohamed, Mostafa K. ; Mohammad, Kazem ; Mohammadifard, Noushin ; Mohan, Viswanathan ; Mohanna, Salim ; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd ; Mollehave, Line T. ; Moller, Niels C. ; Molnar, Denes ; Momenan, Amirabbas ; Mondo, Charles K. ; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K. ; Moon, Jin Soo ; Moreira, Leila B. ; Morejon, Alain ; Moreno, Luis A. ; Morgan, Karen ; Moschonis, George ; Mossakowska, Malgorzata ; Mostafa, Aya ; Mota, Jorge ; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel ; Motta, Jorge ; Msyamboza, Kelias P. ; Mu, Thet Thet ; Muiesan, Maria L. ; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina ; Murphy, Neil ; Mursu, Jaakko ; Musil, Vera ; Nabipour, Iraj ; Nagel, Gabriele ; Naidu, Balkish M. ; Nakamura, Harunobu ; Namesna, Jana ; Nang, Ei Ei K. ; Nangia, Vinay B. ; Narake, Sameer ; Nauck, Matthias ; Maria Navarrete-Munoz, Eva ; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba ; Neal, William A. ; Nenko, Ilona ; Neovius, Martin ; Nervi, Flavio ; Nguyen, Chung T. ; Nguyen, D. Nguyen ; Quang Ngoc Nguyen ; Nguyen, Quang V. ; Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E. ; Niiranen, Teemu J. ; Ning, Guang ; Ninomiya, Toshiharu ; Nishtar, Sania ; Noale, Marianna ; Noboa, Oscar A. ; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali ; Norat, Teresa ; Noto, Davide ; Al Nsour, Mohannad ; O'Reilly, Dermot ; Oda, Eiji ; Oehlers, Glenn ; Oh, Kyungwon ; Ohara, Kumiko ; Olinto, Maria Teresa A. ; Oliveira, Isabel O. ; Azahadi, Mohd ; Onat, Altan ; Ong, Sok King ; Ono, Lariane M. ; Ordunez, Pedro ; Ornelas, Rui ; Osmond, Clive ; Ostojic, Sergej M. ; Ostovar, Afshin ; Otero, Johanna A. ; Overvad, Kim ; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis ; Paccaud, Fred Michel ; Padez, Cristina ; Pahomova, Elena ; Pajak, Andrzej ; Palli, Domenico ; Palmieri, Luigi ; Pan, Wen-Harn ; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra ; Panza, Francesco ; Papandreou, Dimitrios ; Park, Soon-Woo ; Parnell, Winsome R. ; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh ; Patel, Nikhil D. ; Pecin, Ivan ; Pednekar, Mangesh S. ; Peer, Nasheeta ; Peeters, Petra H. ; Peixoto, Sergio Viana ; Peltonen, Markku ; Pereira, Alexandre C. ; Peters, Annette ; Petersmann, Astrid ; Petkeviciene, Janina ; Son Thai Pham ; Pigeot, Iris ; Pikhart, Hynek ; Pilav, Aida ; Pilotto, Lorenza ; Pitakaka, Freda ; Piwonska, Aleksandra ; Plans-Rubio, Pedro ; Polasek, Ozren ; Porta, Miquel ; Portegies, Marileen L. P. ; Pourshams, Akram ; Poustchi, Hossein ; Pradeepa, Rajendra ; Prashant, Mathur ; Price, Jacqueline F. ; Puder, Jardena J. ; Puiu, Maria ; Punab, Margus ; Qasrawi, Radwan F. ; Qorbani, Mostafa ; Tran Quoc Bao ; Radic, Ivana ; Radisauskas, Ricardas ; Rahman, Mahfuzar ; Raitakari, Olli ; Raj, Manu ; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra ; Ramachandran, Ambady ; Ramos, Elisabete ; Rampal, Lekhraj ; Rampal, Sanjay ; Reina, Daniel A. Rangel ; Redon, Josep ; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M. ; Ribeiro, Robespierre ; Riboli, Elio ; Rigo, Fernando ; Wit, Tobias F. Rinke de ; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M. ; Robinson, Sian M. ; Robitaille, Cynthia ; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando ; del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, Maria ; Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A. ; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba ; Romaguera, Dora ; Ronkainen, Kimmo ; Rosengren, Annika ; Roy, Joel G. R. ; Rubinstein, Adolfo ; Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca ; Rutkowski, Marcin ; Sabanayagam, Charumathi ; Sachdev, Harshpal S. ; Saidi, Olfa ; Sakarya, Sibel ; Salanave, Benoit ; Salazar Martinez, Eduardo ; Salmeron, Diego ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Salonen, Jukka T. ; Salvetti, Massimo ; Sanchez-Abanto, Jose ; Sans, Susana ; Santos, Diana A. ; Santos, Ina S. ; Santos, Renata Nunes dos ; Santos, Rute ; Saramies, Jouko L. ; Sardinha, Luis B. ; Sarganas, Giselle ; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal ; Saum, Kai-Uwe ; Savva, Savvas ; Scazufca, Marcia ; Schargrodsky, Herman ; Schipf, Sabine ; Schmidt, Carsten O. ; Schoettker, Ben ; Schultsz, Constance ; Schutte, Aletta E. ; Sein, Aye Aye ; Sen, Abhijit ; Senbanjo, Idowu O. ; Sepanlou, Sadaf G. ; Sharma, Sanjib K. ; Shaw, Jonathan E. ; Shibuya, Kenji ; Shin, Dong Wook ; Shin, Youchan ; Si-Ramlee, Khairil ; Siantar, Rosalynn ; Sibai, Abla M. ; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto ; Simon, Mary ; Simons, Judith ; Simons, Leon A. ; Sjostrom, Michael ; Skovbjerg, Sine ; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta ; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw ; Smeeth, Liam ; Smith, Margaret C. ; Snijder, Marieke B. ; So, Hung-Kwan ; Sobngwi, Eugene ; Soderberg, Stefan ; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo ; Sonestedt, Emily ; Song, Yi ; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A. ; Jerome, Charles Sossa ; Soumare, Aicha ; Staessen, Jan A. ; Stathopoulou, Maria G. ; Stavreski, Bill ; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein ; Stehle, Peter ; Stein, Aryeh D. ; Stergiou, George S. ; Stessman, Jochanan ; Stieber, Jutta ; Stoeckl, Doris ; Stocks, Tanja ; Stokwiszewski, Jakub ; Stronks, Karien ; Strufaldi, Maria Wany ; Sun, Chien-An ; Sung, Yn-Tz ; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul ; Sy, Rody G. ; Tai, E. Shyong ; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis ; Tamosiunas, Abdonas ; Tan, Eng Joo ; Tang, Xun ; Tanser, Frank ; Tao, Yong ; Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul ; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B. ; Tautu, Oana-Florentina ; Taylor, Anne ; Theobald, Holger ; Theodoridis, Xenophon ; Thijs, Lutgarde ; Thuesen, Betina H. ; Tjonneland, Anne ; Tolonen, Hanna K. ; Tolstrup, Janne S. ; Topbas, Murat ; Topor-Madry, Roman ; Jose Tormo, Maria ; Torrent, Maties ; Traissac, Pierre ; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Trinh, Oanh T. H. ; Trivedi, Atul ; Tshepo, Lechaba ; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K. ; Tullu, Fikru ; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka ; Tuomilehto, Jaakko ; Turley, Maria L. ; Tynelius, Per ; Tzourio, Christophe ; Ueda, Peter ; Ugel, Eunice E. ; Ulmer, Hanno ; Uusitalo, Hannu M. T. ; Valdivia, Gonzalo ; Valvi, Damaskini ; van der Schouw, Yvonne T. ; Van Herck, Koen ; Hoang Van Minh ; van Rossem, Lenie ; Van Schoor, Natasja M. ; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M. ; Vanderschueren, Dirk ; Vanuzzo, Diego ; Vatten, Lars ; Vega, Tomas ; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo ; Veronesi, Giovanni ; Verschuren, W. M. Monique ; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn ; Victora, Cesar G. ; Viet, Lucie ; Viikari-Juntura, Eira ; Vineis, Paolo ; Vioque, Jesus ; Virtanen, Jyrki K. ; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie ; Viswanathan, Bharathi ; Vlasoff, Tiina ; Vollenweider, Peter ; Voutilainen, Sari ; Wade, Alisha N. ; Wagner, Aline ; Walton, Janette ; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan ; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan ; Wanderley, Rildo S. ; Wang, Ming-Dong ; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying-Wei ; Wannamethee, S. Goya ; Wareham, Nicholas ; Wedderkopp, Niels ; Weerasekera, Deepa ; Whincup, Peter H. ; Widhalm, Kurt ; Widyahening, Indah S. ; Wiecek, Andrzej ; Wijga, Alet H. ; Wilks, Rainford J. ; Willeit, Johann ; Willeit, Peter ; Williams, Emmanuel A. ; Wilsgaard, Tom ; Wojtyniak, Bogdan ; Wong-McClure, Roy A. ; Wong, Justin Y. Y. ; Wong, Tien Yin ; Woo, Jean ; Wu, Aleksander Giwercman ; Wu, Frederick C. ; Wu, Shouling ; Xu, Haiquan ; Yan, Weili ; Yang, Xiaoguang ; Ye, Xingwang ; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K. ; Yoshihara, Akihiro ; Younger-Coleman, Novie O. ; Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi ; Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali ; Zambon, Sabina ; Zampelas, Antonis ; Zdrojewski, Tomasz ; Zeng, Yi ; Zhao, Dong ; Zhao, Wenhua ; Zheng, Wei ; Zheng, Yingfeng ; Zhu, Dan ; Zhussupov, Baurzhan ; Zimmermann, Esther ; Cisneros, Julio Zuniga ; NCD Risk Factor Collaboration

Date: 2018

Persistent ID: http://hdl.handle.net/11449/164820

Origin: Oasisbr

Subject(s): Blood pressure; hypertension; population health; global health; non-communicable disease


Description

Made available in DSpace on 2018-11-26T22:38:16Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2018-06-01

Wellcome Trust

Background: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group-and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure. Results: In 2005-16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the high-income Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association. Conclusions: Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.

Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England

Univ Kent, Canterbury, Kent, England

Middlesex Univ, London, England

Harvard TH Chan, Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA

Cleveland Clin, Cleveland, OH USA

Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru

Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran

Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Qods, Iran

Brandeis Univ, Waltham, MA USA

Mulago Hosp, Kampala, Uganda

Uganda Heart Inst, Kampala, Uganda

World Hlth Org, Geneva, Switzerland

Univ Oxford, Oxford, England

Univ West Indies, Kingston, Barbados

Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

South African Med Res Council, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

Seoul Natl Univ, Seoul, South Korea

Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Capital Med Univ, Beijing Zhen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China

Robert Koch Inst, Berlin, Germany

German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Munich, Germany

Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

Univ Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden

Univ New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia

Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica

Al Quds Univ, Al bireh, Palestine

Birzeit Univ, Birzeit, Israel

Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Mexico City, DF, Mexico

Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia

Mahidol Univ, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Inst Nacl Ciencias Med & Nutr Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, DF, Mexico

Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia

Non Communicable Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran

BIPS, Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol, Bremen, Germany

Natl Ctr Diabet & Endocrinol, Amman, Jordan

Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan

King Abdulaziz Univ, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Univ Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia

Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg

World Hlth Org Reg Off Eastern Mediterranean, Nasr City, Egypt

Bombay Hosp & Med Res Ctr, Bombay, Maharashtra, India

Med Res Ctr, Bombay, Maharashtra, India

Lille Univ & Hosp, Lille, France

London Sch Hyg Trop Med, London, England

Western Norway Univ Appl Sci, Bergen, Norway

Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway

Bispebjerg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark

Frederiksberg Univ Hosp, Frederiksberg, Denmark

Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India

Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Kumasi, Ghana

Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Tunis, Tunisia

Univ Porto, Porto, Portugal

Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway

Strasbourg Univ & Hosp, Strasbourg, France

Nepal Hlth Res Council, Kathmandu, Nepal

Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon

Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil

Reg Author Publ Hlth, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia

Univ Porto, Med Sch, Porto, Portugal

Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran

Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India

Univ Sci & Technol, Taizi, Yemen

Univ Autonoma Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Univ Palermo, Palermo, Italy

Pan Amer Hlth Org, Washington, DC USA

Univ Mohammed V Rabat, Rabat, Morocco

Univ Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil

Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, NS, Canada

Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan

Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Univ Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia

CAFAM Univ Fdn, Bogota, Colombia

Univ Utah, Sch Med, Salt Lake City, UT USA

Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania

Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

BJ Med Coll, Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India

Chirayu Med Coll, Bhopal, India

SL Jain Hosp, Delhi, India

Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China

Ufa Eye Res Inst, Ufa, Russia

Univ Southern, Odense, Denmark

Univ Greenland, Nuuk, Greenland

Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway

Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Bilthoven, Netherlands

Univ Turin, Turin, Italy

UCL, London, England

German Inst Human Nutr, Berlin, Germany

Univ Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay

CEMIC, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina

Toulouse Univ, Sch Med, Toulouse, France

Univ Hosp Varese, Varese, Italy

Minist Hlth, Victoria, Seychelles

Univ Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium

Univ Cent Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela

Bielefeld Univ, Bielefeld, Germany

German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany

Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

Cork Inst Technol, Cork, Ireland

Hadassah Hebrew Univ, Med Ctr, Jerusalem, Israel

Univ La Laguna, San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain

Univ Malta, Msida, Malta

Vanderbilt Univ, 221 Kirkland Hall, Nashville, TN 37235 USA

Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Res Inst, Ottawa, ON, Canada

Istanbul Univ, Istanbul, Turkey

Univ Fed Juiz De Fora, Juiz De Fora, Brazil

Cardiol Mercato S Severino, Mercato San Severino, Italy

Karolinska Inst, Solna, Sweden

Univ Santiago Compostela, Santiago, Spain

Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore

Natl Inst Med Stat, New Delhi, India

Acad Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan

Capital Inst Pediat, Beijing, Peoples R China

Duke Univ, Durham, NC USA

Kailuan Gen Hosp, Tangshan, Peoples R China

Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Aviv, Israel

Univ Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Minist Hlth & Welf, Taipei, Taiwan

Victor Babes Univ Med & Pharm Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania

Murcia Reg Hlth Council, Murcia, Spain

Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea

Korea Centers Dis Control & Prevent, Cheongju, South Korea

Univ Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Med Univ Silesia, Katowice, Poland

Charles Univ Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Bucharest, Romania

Katholieke Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Agcy Prevent & Social Med, Vienna, Austria

Univ Southampton, Southampton, Hants, England

IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy

Inst Pasteur, Lille, France

CIBEROBN, Madrid, Spain

Natl Council Res, Rome, Italy

Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil

Eduardo Mondlane Univ, Maputo, Mozambique

Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark

Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands

Univ Montreal, Montreal, PQ, Canada

French Publ Hlth Agcy, St Maurice, France

Univ Do Vale Do Rio Dos Sinos, Sao Leopoldo, Brazil

Natl Council Sci & Tech Res, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina

Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia

Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy

Univ Cuenca, Cuenca, Ecuador

Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Oberschleissheim, Germany

Minist Sante & Lutte Contre Sida, Abidjan, Cote Ivoire

Cardinal Wyszynski Inst Cardiol, Warsaw, Poland

Univ Latvia, Riga, Latvia

Natl Inst Nutr & Food Technol, Tunis, Tunisia

Inst Hosp Del Mar dInvest Med, Barcelona, Spain

Univ Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Karadeniz Tech Univ, Trabzon, Turkey

Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland

Queens Univ Belfast, Belfast, Antrim, North Ireland

Univ Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Centro Salud Villanueva Norte, Villanueva de la Serena, Spain

Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica

Hosp Don Benito Villanueva Serena, Badajoz, Spain

Minist Hlth, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina

Council Agr Res & Econ, Arezzo, Italy

Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile

Univ Manchester, Manchester, Lancs, England

Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

Univ Sains Malaysia, George Town, Malaysia

Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden

Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden

Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Hosp Univ Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Spain

Hosp Clin Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Univ Fed Rio Grande, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Kindai Univ, Higashiosaka, Osaka, Japan

Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan

Med Univ Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

Univ Catania, Catania, Italy

CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Madrid, Spain

Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa

Geneva Univ Hosp, Geneva, Switzerland

Australian Bur Stat, Canberra, ACT, Australia

Wageningen Univ, Wageningen, Netherlands

B P Koirala Inst Hlth Sci, Dharan, Nepal

Univ Insubria, Varese, Italy

Univ Politecn Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Andes Clin Cardio Metab Studies, Merida, Venezuela

Natl Inst Hyg Epidemiol & Microbiol, Havana, Cuba

Univ Lille 2, Lille, France

Inst Clin & Expt Med, Prague, Czech Republic

Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland

Alexander Technol Educ Inst, Thessaloniki, Greece

Jagiellonian Univ, Med Coll, Krakow, Poland

Azienda Ospedaliera Univ Policlinico Vittorio Ema, Catania, Italy

Univ Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia

Natl Ctr Cardiovasc Dis, Beijing, Peoples R China

Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore

Iceland Heart Assoc, Reykjavik, Iceland

Univ Icesi, Cali, Colombia

Univ Estadual Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil

Kings Coll London, London, England

Int Agcy Res Canc, Lyon, France

Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Navi Mumbai, India

Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Inst Clin Effectiveness & Hlth Policy, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina

Danish Canc Soc Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark

Kyushu Univ, Fukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan

Tulane Univ, New Orleans, LA USA

Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China

Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico

Oulu Univ Hosp, Oulu, Finland

Chron Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran

Univ Hong Kong, Hong Hom, Hong Kong, Peoples R China

Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Hom, Hong Kong, Peoples R China

Univ Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia

Celal Bayar Univ, Manisa, Turkey

Heart Inst, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Fdn Oftalmol Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia

Univ Oran 1, Oran, Algeria

Independent Publ Hlth Specialist, Yangon, Myanmar

Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China

Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Birzeit Univ, Birzeit, Palestine

Amer Univ Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon

Cairo Univ, Cairo, Egypt

Aga Khan Univ, Karachi, Pakistan

UHC Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

Niigata Univ, Niigata, Japan

Hadassah Univ Med Ctr, Jerusalem, Israel

Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway

Univ Zagreb, Coll Med, Zagreb, Croatia

Heart Fdn, Melbourne, Vic, Australia

Natl Hlth Insurance Serv, Jeonju, South Korea

Guangzhou 12th Hosp, Guangzhou, Peoples R China

Simon Fraser Univ, Burnaby, BC, Canada

Heidelberg Univ, Heidelberg, Germany

Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, Glostrup, Denmark

World Hlth Org Country Off, Delhi, India

Czestochowa Tech Univ, Czestochowa, Poland

Univ Crete, Iraklion, Greece

Univ Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD USA

Univ Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

Natl Inst Epidemiol, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India

Univ Munster, Munster, Germany

Israel Ctr Dis Control, Tel Hashomer, Israel

Res Inst Primordial Prevent Non communicable Dis, Esfahan, Iran

South African Med Res Council, Durban, South Africa

Kyrgyz State Med Acad, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

Res Inst Child Nutr, Bonn, Germany

Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, England

Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

Muhimbili Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

Natl Canc Ctr, Goyang, South Korea

Inst Trop Med, Antwerp, Belgium

Tartu Univ Clin, Tartu, Estonia

Minist Hlth & Qual Life, Port Louis, Mauritius

Polish Acad Sci, Anthropol Unit, Wroclaw, Poland

Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands

North West Univ, Potchefstroom, South Africa

Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Prague, Czech Republic

Univ Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland

Amrita Inst Med Sci, Kochi, Kerala, India

All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India

African Populat & Hlth Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya

Minist Salud Publ, Havana, Cuba

Sahlgrens Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden

Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran

Food & Agr Org United Nat, Rome, Italy

Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

Tampere Univ Hosp, Tampere, Finland

Univ Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa

West Virginia Univ, Morgantown, WV USA

Oswaldo Cruz Fdn Rene Rachou Res Inst, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan

Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China

Capital Med Univ, Beijing An Zhen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China

Univ Med Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

Consejeria Sanidad Junta de Castilla & Leon, Valladolid, Spain

Univ Fed Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil

Jikei Univ, Sch Med, Tokyo, Japan

CNR, Rome, Italy

Baker Heart & Diabet Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia

Agr Univ Athens, Athens, Greece

Hosp Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Shiraz Univ Med Sci, Shiraz, Iran

Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, India

Inst Internal & Prevent Med, Moscow, Russia

Harokopio Univ, Kallithea, Greece

Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Univ Padua, I-35100 Padua, Italy

Lausanne Univ Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland

CIBERCV, Madrid, Spain

Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA USA

UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso, Norway

Cape Peninsula Univ Technol, Cape Town, South Africa

Gorgas Mem Inst Hlth Studies, Panama City, Panama

Brown Univ, Providence, RI USA

Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland

Stat Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada

Univ Coll Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

INSERM, Paris, France

Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany

Lusofona Univ, Lisbon, Portugal

Univ Firenze, Florence, Italy

Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt

Hypertens Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran

Univ Pecs, Pecs, Hungary

Univ Limpopo, Polokwane, South Africa

Seoul Natl Univ, Childrens Hosp, Seoul, South Korea

Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Univ Med Sci, Havana, Cuba

Univ Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

RCSI Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

La Trobe Univ, Bundoora, Vic, Australia

Int Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Warsaw, Poland

Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci, Ahwaz, Khuzestan, Iran

Gorgas Mem Inst Publ Hlth, Panama City, Panama

WHO, Country Off, Lilongwe, Malawi

Dept Publ Hlth, Pyinmana, Myanmar

Univ Brescia, Brescia, Italy

Bushehr Univ Med Sci, Bushehr, Iran

Ulm Univ, Ulm, Germany

Kobe Univ, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan

Suraj Eye Inst, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden

German Ctr Cardiovascular Res, Gottingen, Germany

Natl Inst Hyg & Epidemiol, Hanoi, Vietnam

Univ Pharm & Med Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Hanoi Med Univ, Hanoi, Vietnam

Natl Hosp Endocrinol, Hanoi, Vietnam

Miami Vet Affairs Healthcare Syst, Miami, FL USA

Univ Turku Tyks, Turku, Finland

Kyushu Univ, Fukuoka, Japan

Heartfile, Islamabad, Pakistan

Imperial Coll London, London, England

Eastern Mediterranean Publ Hlth Network, Amman, Jordan

Tachikawa Gen Hosp, Tachikawa, Tokyo, Japan

Acad Hosp Paramaribo, Paramaribo, Surinam

Korea Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Cheongju, South Korea

Univ Vale Rio dos Sinos, Sao Leopoldo, RS, Brazil

Minist Hlth, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei

Univ Madeira, Funchal,, Portugal

MRC Lifecourse Epidemiol Unit, Southampton, Hants, England

Aarhus Univ, Aarhus, Denmark

Kwame Nkrumah Univ Sci & Technol, Kumasi, Ghana

Nstitute Social & Prevent Med, Bern, Switzerland

Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

Canc Prevent & Res Inst, Naples, Italy

IRCCS Casa Sollievo Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy

Zayed Univ, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates

Catholic Univ Daegu, Daegu, South Korea

Jivandeep Hosp, Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India

Univ Zagreb, Sch Med, Zagreb, Croatia

Univ Hosp Ctr Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa

Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rene Rachou Res Inst, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Tehran, Iran

Vietnam Natl Heart Inst, Hanoi, Vietnam

Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany

Univ Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herceg

Cardiovasc Prevent Ctr, Udine, Italy

Minist Hlth & Med Serv, Honiara, Solomon Islands

Publ Hlth Agcy Catalonia, Catalonia, Spain

Univ Split, Split, Croatia

Inst Hosp Mar Invest Med, Barcelona, Spain

Digest Oncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran

Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran

Al Quds Univ, Jerusalem, Palestine

Alborz Univ Med Sci, Alborz, Iran

Minist Hlth, Hanoi, Vietnam

Univ Turku, Turku, Finland

Amrita Inst Med Sci, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

India Diabet Res Fdn, New Delhi, India

Univ Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia

Univ Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Univ Valencia, Valencia, Spain

Univ Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines

Minas Gerais State Secretariat Hlth, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Hlth Ctr San Agustin, San Agustin, Spain

PharmAccess Fdn, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Univ Nove de Julho, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Univ Southampton, Southampton SO9 5NH, Hants, England

Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada

Canarian Hlth Serv, Tenerife, Spain

Univ Ind Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia

Inst Nacl Salud Publ, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico

Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland

Sitaram Bhartia Inst Sci & Res, New Delhi, India

Marmara Univ, Istanbul, Turkey

CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Barcelona, Spain

Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru

Catalan Dept Hlth, Catalonia, Spain

Univ Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil

Univ Sao Paulo, Clin Hosp, Sao Paulo, Brazil

South Karelia Social & Hlth Care Dist, Lappeenranta, Finland

Isfahan Cardiovasc Res Ctr, Esfahan, Iran

Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Nicosia, Cyprus

Hosp Italiano Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina

North West Univ, South African Med Res Council, Potchefstroom, South Africa

Minist Hlth, Naypyidaw, Myanmar

Lagos State Univ, Coll Med, Lagos, Nigeria

BP Koirala Inst Hlth Sci, Dharan, Nepal

Univ Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Samsung Med Ctr, Seoul, South Korea

India Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India

St Vincents Hosp, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Univ New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Med Univ Lodz, Lodz, Poland

London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England

Acad Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China

Univ Bari, Bari, Italy

Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden

Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Inst Reg Sante Publ, Ouidah, Benin

Univ Bordeaux, Talence, France

Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Univ Bonn, Bonn, Germany

Sotiria Hosp, Athens, Greece

Hadassah Univ, Med Ctr, Jerusalem, Israel

Natl Inst Hyg, Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Warsaw, Poland

Fu Jen Catholic Univ, Taipei, Taiwan

Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China

Mahidol Univ, Bangkok, Thailand

Minist Hlth, Amman, Jordan

Alexander Technol Educ Inst, Sindos, Greece

Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Kuopio, Finland

Jagiellonian Univ, Coll Med, Warsaw, Poland

Hlth Serv Murcia, Murcia, Spain

IB SALUT Area Salut Menorca, Ciutadella De Menorca, Spain

Inst Rech Dev, Marseille, France

Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA

Hellen Hlth Fdn, Athens, Greece

Govt Med Coll, New Delhi, India

Sefako Makgatho Hlth Sci Univ, Tshwane, South Africa

Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Dasman Diabet Inst, Kuwait, Kuwait

Minist Hlth, Thorndon, New Zealand

Univ Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France

Univ Centrooccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Barquisimeto, Venezuela

Univ Tampere, Tays Eye Ctr, Tampere, Finland

Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, Hanoi, Vietnam

Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Oslo, Norway

Consejeria Sanidad Junta Castilla & Leon, Madrid, Spain

Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Univ Insubria, Varese, VA, Italy

Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland

Univ Miguel Hernandez, Elche, Spain

North Karelian Ctr Publ Hlth, Joensuu, Finland

Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Univ Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France

Inst Med Res, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Xinjiang Med Univ, Urumqi, Peoples R China

Capital Med Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China

Univ Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark

St Georges Univ London, London, England

Med Univ Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Univ Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia

Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Eindhoven, Netherlands

Minist Agr, Inst Food & Nutr Dev, Beijing, Peoples R China

Fudan Univ, Childrens Hosp, Shanghai, Peoples R China

Univ Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus

Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putra Jaya, Malaysia

Univ Teknol MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

Univ Padua, Padua, Italy

Vanderbilt Univ, Nashville, TN USA

Inner Mongolia Med Univ, Hohhot, Peoples R China

Univ Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Wellcome Trust: 101506/Z/13/Z

Document Type Journal article
Language English
Contributor(s) Imperial Coll London; Univ Kent; Middlesex Univ; Harvard TH Chan; Cleveland Clin; Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia; Univ Tehran Med Sci; Minist Hlth & Med Educ; Brandeis Univ; Mulago Hosp; Uganda Heart Inst; World Hlth Org; Univ Oxford; Univ West Indies; Univ Auckland; South African Med Res Council; Seoul Natl Univ; Natl Inst Nutr; Capital Med Univ; Robert Koch Inst; German Ctr Cardiovasc Res; Univ Zagreb; Univ Ljubljana; Uppsala Univ; Univ New South Wales; Caja Costarricense Seguro Social; Al Quds Univ; Birzeit Univ; Inst Mexicano Seguro Social; Univ Adelaide; Mahidol Univ; BRAC; Inst Nacl Ciencias Med & Nutr Salvador Zubiran; Univ Amsterdam; Minist Hlth Malaysia; Non Communicable Dis Res Ctr; BIPS; Natl Ctr Diabet & Endocrinol; Kazakh Natl Med Univ; King Abdulaziz Univ; Univ Malaysia Sabah; Luxembourg Inst Hlth; World Hlth Org Reg Off Eastern Mediterranean; Bombay Hosp & Med Res Ctr; Med Res Ctr; Lille Univ & Hosp; London Sch Hyg Trop Med; Western Norway Univ Appl Sci; Norwegian Sch Sport Sci; Bispebjerg Hosp; Frederiksberg Univ Hosp; Madras Diabet Res Fdn; Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp; Natl Inst Publ Hlth; Univ Porto; Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth; Strasbourg Univ & Hosp; Nepal Hlth Res Council; Univ Iceland; Univ Yaounde I; Univ Fed Pelotas; Reg Author Publ Hlth; Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci; Indian Council Med Res; Univ Sci & Technol; Univ Autonoma Madrid; Univ Palermo; Pan Amer Hlth Org; Univ Mohammed V Rabat; Univ Pernambuco; Dalhousie Univ; Jordan Univ Sci & Technol; Univ Sydney; Univ Tunis El Manar; CAFAM Univ Fdn; Univ Utah; Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); BJ Med Coll; Chirayu Med Coll; SL Jain Hosp; Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ; Ufa Eye Res Inst; Univ Southern; Univ Greenland; Univ Oslo; Univ Gothenburg; Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm; Univ Turin; UCL; German Inst Human Nutr; Univ Republica; CEMIC; Toulouse Univ; Univ Hosp Varese; Minist Hlth; Univ Lausanne; Univ Ghent; Univ Cent Venezuela; Bielefeld Univ; German Canc Res Ctr; Univ Southern Denmark; Cork Inst Technol; Hadassah Hebrew Univ; Univ La Laguna; Univ Malta; Vanderbilt Univ; Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Res Inst; Istanbul Univ; Univ Fed Juiz De Fora; Cardiol Mercato S Severino; Karolinska Inst; Univ Santiago Compostela; Duke NUS Med Sch; Natl Inst Med Stat; Acad Sinica; Capital Inst Pediat; Duke Univ; Kailuan Gen Hosp; Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res; Univ Bern; Minist Hlth & Welf; Victor Babes Univ Med & Pharm Timisoara; Murcia Reg Hlth Council; Korea Centers Dis Control & Prevent; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Med Univ Silesia; Charles Univ Prague; Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm; Katholieke Univ Leuven; Agcy Prevent & Social Med; Univ Southampton; IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed; Inst Pasteur; CIBEROBN; Natl Council Res; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC); Eduardo Mondlane Univ; Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp; Erasmus MC; Univ Montreal; French Publ Hlth Agcy; Univ Do Vale Do Rio Dos Sinos; Natl Council Sci & Tech Res; Univ Queensland; Ist Super Sanita; Univ Cuenca; Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen; Minist Sante & Lutte Contre Sida; Cardinal Wyszynski Inst Cardiol; Univ Latvia; Natl Inst Nutr & Food Technol; Inst Hosp Del Mar dInvest Med; Univ Stellenbosch; Karadeniz Tech Univ; Natl Inst Hlth & Welf; Queens Univ Belfast; Univ Zurich; Centro Salud Villanueva Norte; Hosp Don Benito Villanueva Serena; Council Agr Res & Econ; Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile; Univ Manchester; Univ Tartu; Univ Sains Malaysia; Umea Univ; Dalarna Univ; Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP); Hosp Univ Son Espases; Hosp Clin Porto Alegre; Univ Fed Rio Grande; Kindai Univ; Kyoto Univ; Med Univ Warsaw; Univ Catania; CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ; Univ KwaZulu Natal; Geneva Univ Hosp; Australian Bur Stat; Wageningen Univ; B P Koirala Inst Hlth Sci; Univ Insubria; Univ Politecn Madrid; Andes Clin Cardio Metab Studies; Natl Inst Hyg Epidemiol & Microbiol; Univ Lille 2; Inst Clin & Expt Med; Childrens Mem Hlth Inst; Alexander Technol Educ Inst; Jagiellonian Univ; Azienda Ospedaliera Univ Policlinico Vittorio Ema; Univ Novi Sad; Natl Ctr Cardiovasc Dis; Singapore Eye Res Inst; Iceland Heart Assoc; Univ Icesi; Univ Estadual Montes Claros; Kings Coll London; Int Agcy Res Canc; Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth; Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst; Univ Ibadan; Inst Clin Effectiveness & Hlth Policy; Danish Canc Soc Res Ctr; Kyushu Univ; Tulane Univ; Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent; Oulu Univ Hosp; Chron Dis Res Ctr; Univ Hong Kong; Chinese Univ Hong Kong; Univ Western Australia; Celal Bayar Univ; Fdn Oftalmol Santander; Univ Oran 1; Independent Publ Hlth Specialist; Peking Univ; Vrije Univ Amsterdam; Amer Univ Beirut; Cairo Univ; Aga Khan Univ; UHC Zagreb; Niigata Univ; Hadassah Univ Med Ctr; Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol; Heart Fdn; Natl Hlth Insurance Serv; Guangzhou 12th Hosp; Simon Fraser Univ; Heidelberg Univ; Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth; World Hlth Org Country Off; Czestochowa Tech Univ; Univ Crete; Univ Kebangsaan Malaysia; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth; Univ Eastern Finland; Natl Inst Epidemiol; 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Gorgas Mem Inst Hlth Studies; Brown Univ; Univ Edinburgh; Stat Canada; Univ Coll Dublin; INSERM; Lusofona Univ; Univ Firenze; Ain Shams Univ; Hypertens Res Ctr; Univ Pecs; Univ Limpopo; Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul; Univ Med Sci; Univ Zaragoza; RCSI Dublin; La Trobe Univ; Int Inst Mol & Cell Biol; Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci; Gorgas Mem Inst Publ Hlth; WHO; Dept Publ Hlth; Univ Brescia; Bushehr Univ Med Sci; Ulm Univ; Kobe Univ; Suraj Eye Inst; German Ctr Cardiovascular Res; Natl Inst Hyg & Epidemiol; Univ Pharm & Med Ho Chi Minh City; Hanoi Med Univ; Natl Hosp Endocrinol; Miami Vet Affairs Healthcare Syst; Univ Turku Tyks; Heartfile; Eastern Mediterranean Publ Hlth Network; Tachikawa Gen Hosp; Acad Hosp Paramaribo; Korea Ctr Dis Control & Prevent; Univ Vale Rio dos Sinos; Univ Madeira; MRC Lifecourse Epidemiol Unit; Aarhus Univ; Kwame Nkrumah Univ Sci & Technol; Nstitute Social & Prevent Med; Univ Coimbra; Canc Prevent & Res Inst; IRCCS Casa Sollievo Sofferenza; Zayed Univ; Catholic Univ Daegu; 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