Document details

Development of novel active pharmaceutical ionic liquids and salts based on antibiotics and anti-fungal drugs

Author(s): Ferraz, Ricardo João Vieira

Date: 2013

Persistent ID:

Origin: Repositório Institucional da UNL

Subject(s): Active pharmaceutical ingredients; Ionic liquids; Antimicrobial agents; Antimicrobial resistance; Anti-tumoral activity


Ionic Liquids (ILs) are class of compounds, which have become popular since the mid-1990s. Despite the fact that ILs are defined by one physical property (melting point), many of the potential applications are now related to their biological properties. The use of a drug as a liquid can avoid some problems related to polymorphism which can influence a drug´s solubility and thus its dosages. Also, the arrangement of the anion or cation with a specific drug might be relevant in order to: a) change the correspondent biopharmaceutical drug classification system; b) for the drug formulation process and c) the change the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients’ (APIs). The main goal of this Thesis is the synthesis and study of physicochemical and biological properties of ILs as APIs from beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, penicillin G and amoxicillin) and from the anti-fungal Amphotericin B. All the APIs used here were neutralized in a buffer appropriate hydroxide cations. The cation hydroxide was obtained on Amberlite resin (in the OH form) in order to exchange halides. The biological studies of these new compounds were made using techniques like the micro dilution and colorimetric methods. Overall a total of 19 new ILs were synthesised (6 ILs based on ampicillin, 4 ILs, based on amoxicillin, 6 ILs based on penicillin G and 4 ILs based on amphotericin B) and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical methods in order to confirm their structure and purity. The study of the biological properties of the synthesised ILs showed that some have antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeast cells, even in resistant bacteria. Also this work allowed to show that ILs based on ampicillin could be used as anti-tumour agents. This proves that with a careful selection of the organic cation, it is possible to provoke important physico-chemical and biological alteration in the properties of ILs-APIs with great impact, having in mind their applications.

Document Type Doctoral thesis
Language English
Advisor(s) Soares, Maria Cristina; Noronha, João; Petrovski, Željko
Contributor(s) Ferraz, Ricardo João Vieira
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