Document details

Technical optimization of the synthesis of flavours

Author(s): Wehling, Djamila Marlit Salena

Date: 2015

Persistent ID: http://hdl.handle.net/10362/15883

Origin: Repositório Institucional da UNL

Subject(s): Fragrances; Phase‐transfer catalysis; Hydrolysis; Esterification; Cope‐rearrangement; Domínio/Área Científica::Engenharia e Tecnologia::Engenharia Química; Domínio/Área Científica::Engenharia e Tecnologia::Engenharia Química; Domínio/Área Científica::Engenharia e Tecnologia::Engenharia Química


Description

The goal of this thesis is the investigation and optimization of the synthesis of potential fragrances. This work is projected as collaboration between the University of Applied Sciences in Merseburg and the company Miltitz Aromatics GmbH in Bitterfeld‐Wolfen (Germany). Flavoured compounds can be synthesized in different ways and by various methods. In this work, methods like the phase transfer catalysis and the Cope‐rearrangement were investigated and applied, for getting a high yield and quantity of the desired substances and without any by‐products or side reactions. This involved the study of syntheses with different process parameters such as temperature, solvent, pressure and reaction time. The main focus was on Cope‐rearrangement, which is a common method in the synthesis of new potential fragrance compounds. The substances synthesized in this work have a hepta‐1,5‐diene‐structure and that is why they can easily undergo this [3,3]‐sigma tropic rearrangement. The lead compound of all research was 2,5‐dimethyl‐2‐vinyl‐4‐hexenenitrile (Neronil). Neronil is synthesized by an alkylation of 2‐methyl‐3‐butenenitrile with prenylchloride under basic conditions in a phase‐transfer system. In this work the yield of isolated Neronil is improved from about 35% to 46% by according to the execution conditions of the reaction. Additionally the amount of side product was decreased. This synthesized hexenenitrile involved not only the aforementioned 1,5‐diene‐structure, but also a cyano group, that makes this structure a suitable base for the synthesis of new potential fragrance compounds. It was observed that Neronil can be transferred into 2,5‐dimethyl‐2‐vinyl‐4‐hexenoic acid by a hydrolysis under basic conditions. After five hours the acid can be obtained with a yield of 96%. The following esterification is realized with isobutanol to produce 2,5‐dimethyl‐2‐vinyl‐4‐hexenoic acid isobutyl ester with quantitative conversion. It was observed that the Neronil and the corresponding ester can be converted into the corresponding Cope‐product, with a conversion of 30 % and 80%. Implementing the Cope‐rearrangement, the acid was heated and an unexpected decarboxylated product is formed. To achieve the best verification of reaction development and structure, scrupulous analyses were done using GC‐MS, 1H‐NMR and 13C‐ NMR.

Document Type Master thesis
Language English
Advisor(s) Rödel, Thomas; Eusébio, Mário
Contributor(s) Wehling, Djamila Marlit Salena
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