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Novel antibiotic-loaded orthopaedic bone cements: insights on drug release profiles and biocompatibility

Author(s): Silva, Sofia Miguel dos Reis Pinto da

Date: 2015

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Origin: Repositório Institucional da UNL

Subject(s): Bone cement; Levofloxacin; Diclofenac; Biocompatibility; Biofilm; Biopolymers; Domínio/Área Científica::Engenharia e Tecnologia::Engenharia Química; Domínio/Área Científica::Engenharia e Tecnologia::Engenharia Química; Domínio/Área Científica::Engenharia e Tecnologia::Engenharia Química


Acrylic bone cement (BC) is widely used as an anchor of artificial joints. Bacterial infection due to biofilm formation and inflammation are common and difficult to treat problems associated with commercial available BC formulations. Research on novel BC compositions is urgently needed. The main objective of this thesis was to develop a new biocompatible antibiotic-loaded BC with improved release profile. To achieve that aim several additives were incorporated, as an antibiotic (levofloxacin) to combat bacterial growth, an anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac) to decrease the inflammatory process and two well-known and broadly used biopolymers, alginate and chitosan in order to increase matrix porosity, and in this way to intensify the amount of released drug. Novel BC formulations were tested in order to find the most suitable one that had potential to proceed to clinical application. Numerous tests were conducted as: a) evaluation of drug release profiles in different biomimetic media, b) mechanical and surface studies, c) microbiological activity testing against Staphylococcus aureus and d) in vitro biocompatibility assays (fibroblasts and osteoblasts). In general, the addition of biopolymers increased drug release, didn’t compromised BC mechanical properties and increased BC hydrophilicity. Microbiological testing revealed that Lev[BC]Chi was the only matrix that reduced significantly biofilm formation. On the contrary, alginate and diclofenac loading into BC seemed to increase biofilm growth. Biocompatibility studies showed some decrease in cell viability, in particularly on osteoblasts, mainly due to the high amounts of released drugs. In conclusion, the present work has shown that the matrix with more potential to proceed in further investigations was Lev[BC]Chi. Other conditions (namely additives and drugs concentrations) should be evaluated with the other tested BC matrices before being discharged.

Document Type Master thesis
Language English
Advisor(s) Bettencourt, Ana; Gonçalves, Lídia
Contributor(s) Silva, Sofia Miguel dos Reis Pinto da
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